By 22/07/2015 14 Comments

Interface In C#

  • An Interface defines the term “what a class must do”. It enforces to the class to complete the uncompleted behavior (methods).
  • An object of the interface cannot be created.
  • In C# an interface can be a member of a class, namespace or struct.
  • An interface contains incomplete methods which is “abstract” methods by default.
  • An interface can only be used through its implementation in a class. When an interface is implemented in a class that class must complete its abstract/incomplete methods.
  • An interface can be declare by using a keyword “interface”.
  • Interfaces are similar to abstract classes but in an interface there are no complete method can be declared.
  • One interface can be implemented by any number of classes and also one class can implements any number of interfaces at once separated by commas. Along with interfaces implementation a class is free to declare its own members (methods, data etc.).
  • An interface can be inherited from other base/parent interfaces. Base interface member can be hidden in its derived interface by same declaration in it and generates a warning message. Warning message can be prevented through the use of “new” keyword with derived interface members.
  • An interface has “public” methods by default, no any access modifier can be explicitly specified with them.
  • Along with methods an interface has properties, indexers and events.
  • Interfaces cannot have fields/variables, destructors, constructors and operator methods.
  • Static members cannot be declared in interfaces.
  • The methods of interfaces must be specified as “public” in a class which implements it because these methods are implicitly public in an interface.
  • A class which implements an interface must has same method name, return type and parameter list exactly match with the methods declared in an interface.
  • C# implements runtime polymorphism through interfaces.
  • Interfaces support multiple inheritance.

General Syntax:

access-modifier interface IName
{
      // statement(s)
}

STATEMENT DESCRIPTION
access-modifier It must be public (Recommended but an optional).
interface An interface keyword.
IName Can be any valid interface name which should be prefixed by I.
{ // statement(s); } That can be interface members (abstract methods, properties etc).

Example:

using System;
namespace csharpBasic
{
    // An interface declaration.
    public interface IMarkSheet
    {
        // Double type abstract method declaration.
        double GetObtainMarks();
        double GetPercentage(double obtainMarks, double totalMarks);

        // An abstract property declaration.
        double GetTotalMarks
        {
            get;
        }

        double GetAspMarks();
        double GetJsMarks();
    }

    // MarkSheet class implements an interface IMarkSheet.
    class MarkSheet : IMarkSheet
    {
       // Double type fields declaration.
        double AspMarks;
        double JavascriptMarks;
        double TotalMarks = 200;

        // Double type read-only property declaration.
        public double GetTotalMarks
        {
            get
            {
                return TotalMarks;
            }
        }

        // Parametrized constructor with 2 parameters.
        public MarkSheet(double aspMarks, double javascriptMarks)
        {
            AspMarks = aspMarks;
            JavascriptMarks = javascriptMarks;
        }

        // Double return type methods which returns each subject mark.
        public double GetAspMarks()
        {
            return AspMarks;
        }
        public double GetJsMarks()
        {
            return JavascriptMarks;
        }

        // Return type method returns obtain marks.
        public double GetObtainMarks()
        {
            return AspMarks + JavascriptMarks;
        }

        // Double return type method returns percentage of obtain marks.
        public double GetPercentage(double obtainMarks, double totalMarks)
        {
            return (obtainMarks / totalMarks) * 100.0;
        }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("General mark sheet information:");

            // Creation of a Marksheet object.
            MarkSheet markSheet = new MarkSheet(80, 70);

            Console.WriteLine("Asp.NET marks: {0}", markSheet.GetAspMarks());
            Console.WriteLine("Javascript marks: {0}", markSheet.GetJsMarks());

            // Statement gets obtain marks by calling GetObtainMarks() method.
            double obtainMarks = markSheet.GetObtainMarks();

            // Statement prints total marks by access TotalMarks static field.
            Console.WriteLine("Total Marks {0}", markSheet.GetTotalMarks);
            Console.WriteLine("Obtain marks: {0}", obtainMarks);
            Console.WriteLine("Pecentage: {0}", markSheet.GetPercentage(obtainMarks, markSheet.GetTotalMarks));
            Console.ReadKey();
        }
    }
    /*  The Output will be:
     
        General mark sheet information:
        Asp.NET marks: 80
        Javascript marks: 70
        Total Marks 200
        Obtain marks: 150
        Pecentage: 75

     */
}





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